When a woman becomes sexually active, she is exposed to sperm antigens, but these do not normally trigger the woman’s immune system making the cervical mucus hostile to sperm penetration, but in certain situations this can happen. For instance, if there are cervical lesions present or from over energetic sexual intercourse or due to intercourse taking place during menstruation.
The presence of anti sperm antibodies ( ASAb) in the cervical mucus causes infertility of an immunological nature as the sperms clump and die becoming unable to reach the uterus and fertilize the ovum. Moreover, ASAb alters the sperms’ membrane damaging the DNA contained in their heads and causing infertility.
ASAb are found in the cervical mucus and the blood of the affected female, therefore both must be tested.